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Infographics

Research is more powerful when it is accessible and easy to understand. An ongoing project we are undertaking is transforming some of our key research findings into bite-sized infographics so they can be more widely shared with stakeholders, including teachers, administrators, government policy makers, and the general public. New infographics will be posted as they are developed during 2024 and 2025. Please see (and share!) some of our findings below.

16

Using the Right Technology at the Right Time in the Flipped Classroom

In a flipped classroom, the instructional model of 'lecture during class, assignment/ project at home' is reversed. This model became particularly relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic with online instruction. Bloom's taxonomy can be used as a tool to select learning goals for flipped classroom learning, with lower level learning objectives being a better fit for asynchronous learning, and higher level objectives requiring more scaffolding and teacher-student interaction.

Educators can support student success by incorporating interactive components or technologies to give students feedback and clarify misconceptions, both in real-time and asynchronously. They can also model problem solving processes aloud and use breakout rooms to support a collaborative learning environment. In understanding these pedagogical theories that underpin and support successful 'flipped learning', educators can successfully adapt to the changing landscape of education.

Read the full article here:  Sokal, L. (February 2022). Using the right technology at the right time in the flipped classroom. THE Campus, Times Higher Education. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/campus/using-right-technology-right-time-flipped-classroom

#4 Johnny REV Using the right technology at the right time in the flipped classroom.jpg
#3 Johnny TO POST  Planning for Teacher Recovery from the Covid-19 Pandemic Adaptive Regul

15

Planning for Teacher Recovery: Adaptive Regulation to Promote Resilience

The idea of using adaptive regulation to mitigate the effects of burnout and to promote resilience is not new, but had not been considered for teachers navigating a post-pandemic recovery. Through a systemic review of interventions to both prevent and reduce burnout amongst teachers, the researchers learned about the importance of multi-level approaches to burnout intervention on both an individual and organizational basis. The research also emphasized the role of leadership, job crafting, and job recovery in promoting teacher resilience. 

Read the full article here:  

  1. Eblie Trudel. L., Sokal, L., & Babb, J. (2021). Planning for teacher recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic: Adaptive regulation to promote resilience in teachers. Interdisciplinary Education and Psychology, 3(1) 1. http://riverapublications.com/assets/files/pdf_files/planning-for-teacher-recovery-from- the-covid-19-pandemic-adaptive-regulation-to-promote-resilience.pdf

14

THIS IS US: Latent Profile Analysis of Canadian Teachers' Burnout during the COVID-19 Pandemic

In this latent profile analysis, we aimed to identify the different burnout profiles evident in Canadian teachers, and the job demands and resources associated with each. We found five distinct teacher burnout profiles, and notably found that the majority of teachers fell into groups that need support for recovery, highlighting the impact of the pandemic on teacher well-being. This research can inform targeted interventions to support teacher well-being and resilience. 

 

Find the full article here: Babb, J., Sokal, L., & Trudel, L. E. (2022). THIS IS US: Latent profile analysis of Canadian teachers’ burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. Canadian Journal of Education, 45(2), 555–585. https://doi.org/10.53967/cje-rce.v45i2.5057

#1 Johnny THIS IS US Latent Profile Analysis of Canadian Teachers' Burnout During the COVI
#2 Johnny REV Teacher (Dis)connectedness and Burnout during COVID-19.jpg

13

Teacher (Dis)connectedness and Burnout During COVID-19

This study aimed to understand the relationship between teacher burnout and the protective effects of relationships with colleagues. Using a mixed methods research design, we found that while teachers' perceptions of their levels of administrative and collegial support remained consistent between pandemic 'waves', teachers' levels of connectedness was lower during the third wave. Understanding teacher connectedness can help inform effects on teacher attrition and organizational commitment, among other variables.

 

To read the full article, visit: Sokal, L., Eblie Trudel, L., & Babb, J. (2022). Teacher (Dis)Connectedness and Burnout during COVID-19. Invited book chapter. In M. Leiter & C. Cooper (Eds.), Burnout: Lessons from the pandemic and beyond (p. 83-106). Taylor and Francis. https://www.routledge.com/Burnout-While-Working-Lessons-from-Pandemic-and-Beyond/Leiter-Cooper/p/book/9781032158747

12

Dynamic Perspectives on Education During the COVID 19 Pandemic and Implications for Teacher Well-Being

In this study, we wanted to further investigate the demands, changing perspectives, and coping mechanisms employed by Manitoba teachers during the COVID 19 pandemic. A quantitative online survey of 147 participants was followed by bi-weekly interviews with 21 teachers during the 2020-21 school year, and a further follow-up interview a year later.

Themes relating to physical health, safety, student needs, demands and resources, and support from administrators and colleagues emerged. The findings indicate a need for improving organizational support to enhance teacher resilience and work-life balance during stressful periods.

Read the full article here: Eblie Trudel, L. & Sokal, L. (2023). Dynamic perspectives on education during the COVID-19 pandemic and implications for the future of teacher well-being. International Journal of Educational Research Open. https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S2666-3740(23)00016-X

Todd #5 Final Dynamic Perspectives on Education During the COVID 19 Pandemic and Implicati
Todd #4 Final Post Traumatic Growth and Protection From Burnout in Teachers During the COV

11

Post-Traumatic Growth and Protection From Burnout in Teachers During the Covid-19 Pandemic

In this study, we wanted to investigate the prevalence of post-traumatic growth (PTG) within Canadian teachers who had previously demonstrated flourishing (Engaged and Involved) profiles in response to the pandemic. We wanted to know how these teachers may have demonstrated the characteristics of PTG and whether being part of the Engaged and Involved profile groups predicted PTG.

We found that two out of the four teachers in these groups demonstrated PTG during the pandemic. We also found that avoiding burnout and experiencing a flourishing mental state do not necessarily indicate PTG.

Read the full article here: Sokal, L., Eblie Trudel, L. & Heaman-Warne, C. (2023). Post-Traumatic Growth and protection from burnout in teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 69(2), 254- 271. https://journalhosting.ucalgary.ca/index.php/ajer/article/view/76706

10

Supporting Teachers in Times of Change: The Job Demands-Resources Model and Teacher Burnout During the COVID-19 Pandemic

In this study, we used the well-known Job Demands-Resources (J D-R) model to investigate teachers' experiences with teacher burnout and resilience during pandemic teaching. We surveyed over 1000 Canadian teachers on measures of stress and burnout, and assessment of job demands and resources related to remote teaching to see whether the J D-R model was a useful tool to help us interrogate teacher burnout and resilience. 

We found that the J D-R model was partially supported int his context. Most demands were strongly correlated with teacher exhaustion, followed by cynicism and accomplishment. However, not all resources were found to be strongly associated with later stages of burnout, which highlighted the importance of examining each resource separately, rather than by category.

Find the full article here: 

Sokal, L., Eblie Trudel, L., Babb, J. (2020). Supporting teachers in times of change: The job demands- resources model and teacher burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Contemporary Education, 3(2), 67-74. https://winnspace.uwinnipeg.ca/handle/10680/1823

Todd #3 FINAL Supporting Teachers in Times of Change The Job Demands- Resources  Model and
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09

Teachers' Voices: Pandemic Lessons for the Future of Education

In this study, we used a mixed-methods approach to survey over 2000 Canadian teachers while following up with a purposeful sampling of teachers to ensure a broad range of characteristics. We aimed to gain greater insight into the job demands and resources available and needed during pandemic-era teaching, as well as perceptions about the future of teaching.

Five practical lessons learned were identified:

1. Prioritizing basic needs before learning

2. Challenging systemic inequities

3. Strengthening the context for learning

4. Balancing demands and resources

5. Facing challenges together.

Find the full article here: Eblie Trudel, L., Sokal, L., & Babb, J. (2021). Teachers’ voices: Pandemic lessons for the future of education. Journal of Teaching and Learning, 15(1), 4-19. https://.doi.org/10.22329/jtl.v15i1.6486

08

Transformational Leadership Approaches and Their Influence on Teacher Resilience During the COVID-19 Pandemic

In this study, we asked leaders from various divisions across our province to share their experiences and perspectives on their leadership approaches during the pandemic, particularly as they related to the challenges they faced.

The research combined in-depth interviews, focus groups, observations and insights within each aspect of the Areas of Worklife (AW) model. We learned that transformational leadership approaches played a crucial rule in things such as managing work overload, job demands, professional development opportunities and ensuring professional autonomy for teachers.

Read the full article here:

Trudel, L. E., Sokal, L., & Babb, J. (2022). Transformational leadership approaches and their influence on teacher resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Organizational Psychology, 22(1). https://doi.org/10.33423/jop.v22i1.5019

Breanna #4 final Transformational Leadership Approaches and Their Influence on Teacher Res
Todd #2 final  The Effects of a School-Based, Post-Pandemic Recovery Intervention on Canad

07

The Effects of a School-Based, Post-Pandemic Recovery Intervention on Canadian Educators

In this study, we aimed to provide empirical evidence of effective interventions that supported educators in a post-pandemic school system, especially in regards to educator recovery and resilience from burnout and elevated stress. 

Over 600 educators participated in an intervention program that collected data from both participants and a control group focused on elements such as connectedness, well-being, and organizational commitment. We learned that this school-based mental health intervention program had a significant positive impact on educator well-being and recovery when comparing pre- to post-intervention. 

Read the full article here: 

Sokal, L. & Eblie Trudel, L. (2023). Effects of a school-based, post-pandemic recovery intervention on Canadian educators. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 5, https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S2666-3740(23)00073-0.

06

Canadian Teachers' Attitudes Toward Change and Technology, Efficacy, and Burnout During the COVID-19 Pandemic

In this study, we aimed to investigate whether teachers' attitudes towards change, perceptions of support, efficacy, and attitudes towards technology, resilience, and burnout changed over time during the initial stages of the pandemic. 

Using a mixed-methods approach, we found that while teachers demonstrated increased exhaustion during the April to June 2020 data collection, they also demonstrated increased accomplishment and higher levels of efficacy in terms of managing behaviour while teaching online. Efficacy for managing student behaviour  while teaching online was correlated with higher resilience and better attitudes toward change.

Read the full article here: Sokal, L., Eblie Trudel, L., & Babb, J. (2020). Canadian teachers’ attitudes toward change and technology, efficacy, and burnout during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research- Open. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100016

In this study, we examined Santoro's theory that demoralization is a process that is distinct from burnout. We conducted an investigative review process to re-conceptualize the model of teacher burnout to determine whether current research and theorizing about burnout could in fact capture demoralization as a key component. 

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We found that demoralization is a distinct and additional form of teacher burnout involving withdrawal from systems of schooling. 

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We also found that burnout in teachers is a process that each individual experiences and responds to differently, suggesting that teachers may withdraw either from their work, their students, or both, and highlighting the need for differentiated, multi-level responses to the different causes and manifestations of burnout.

05

Demoralization as a Form of Teacher Burnout

In this study, we examined Santoro's theory that demoralization is a process that is distinct from burnout. We conducted an investigative review process to re-conceptualize the model of teacher burnout to determine whether current research and theorizing about burnout could in fact capture demoralization as a key component. 

We found that demoralization is a distinct and additional form of teacher burnout involving withdrawal from systems of schooling. 

We also found that burnout in teachers is a process that each individual experiences and responds to differently, suggesting that teachers may withdraw either from their work, their students, or both, and highlighting the need for differentiated, multi-level responses to the different causes and manifestations of burnout.

Read the full article here: 

Sokal, L. & Eblie Trudel, L. (2023). Demoralization as a form of teacher burnout. McGill Journal of Education, 57(2). https://mje.mcgill.ca/issue/view/577

04

A Recovery Pathway After Covid-19 Teacher Burnout

Teaching is a stressful profession, and the impact of Covid-19 has only amplified this stress: prior studies have revealed that teacher burnout now occurs at higher rates. In our study, we conducted biweekly phone interviews with 22 teachers across Manitoba, asking about their work experiences during the pandemic, changes in processes due to Covid, the impact on providing equitable learning opportunities, and any unexpected 'silver linings' that may have occurred to help us further understand the experiences of teacher burnout and recovery.

Only one of the teachers experienced burnout, took a leave from work, and recovered. We learned that the experiences of burnout and recovery in this teacher aligned with pre-pandemic theories about burnout. Other key themes included the importance of values congruence and the need for a balance of person-centred approaches and workload management to prevent further burnout.

Read the full article here: Sokal, L., & Eblie Trudel, L. (2022). A recovery pathway after COVID-19 teacher burnout. Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, 16(1), 352-370. https://doi.org/10.5590/JSBHS.2022.16.1.24

Teaching is a stressful profession, and the impact of Covid-19 has only amplified this stress: prior studies have revealed that teacher burnout now occurs at higher rates. In our study, we conducted biweekly phone interviews with 22 teachers across Manitoba, asking about their work experiences during the pandemic, changes in processes due to Covid, the impact on providing equitable learning opportunities, and any unexpected 'silver linings' that may have occurred to help us further understand the experiences of teacher burnout and recovery.

​

Only one of the teachers experienced burnout, took a leave from work, and recovered. We learned that the experiences of burnout and recovery in this teacher aligned with pre-pandemic theories about burnout. Other key themes included the importance of values congruence and the need for a balance of person-centred approaches and workload management to prevent further burnout.

​

Read the full article here: Sokal, L., & Eblie Trudel, L. (2022). A
In this study, we looked at the relationships between government and divisional leadership variables, and teacher burnout, organizational commitment, and teachers' intention to leave their schools or the profession during the Covid-19 pandemic.

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We surveyed 147 Canadian teachers in addition to conducting biweekly interviews with 21 of these teachers. We found that teachers who planned to remain in their schools demonstrated more positive views of both school and divisional leadership, and experienced lower levels of exhaustion and higher levels of connection. Interestingly, some teachers who planned on leaving the profession held positive views of school and divisional leadership, but held negative views of government leadership. This was also supported by quantitative comments. 

Read the full article here: Sokal, L., Eblie Trudel, L., & Babb, J. (2020). I’ve had it! Factors associated with burnout and low organizational commitment in Canadian teachers during the second wave of th

03

I've Had It! Factors Associated With Low Organizational Commitment in Canadian Teachers During the Second Wave of the Covid-19 Pandemic

In this study, we looked at the relationships between government and divisional leadership variables, and teacher burnout, organizational commitment, and teachers' intention to leave their schools or the profession during the Covid-19 pandemic.

We surveyed 147 Canadian teachers in addition to conducting biweekly interviews with 21 of these teachers. We found that teachers who planned to remain in their schools demonstrated more positive views of both school and divisional leadership, and experienced lower levels of exhaustion and higher levels of connection. Interestingly, some teachers who planned on leaving the profession held positive views of school and divisional leadership, but held negative views of government leadership. This was also supported by quantitative comments. 

Read the full article here: Sokal, L., Eblie Trudel, L., & Babb, J. (2020). I’ve had it! Factors associated with burnout and low organizational commitment in Canadian teachers during the second wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research- Open. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666374020300236

02

It's OK to be OK, Too

During the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic, we surveyed over 2,200 teachers across Canada to find out how chronic and increasing stress levels were affecting their well-being, knowing that prolonged exposure to stress has a negative effect on both physical and psychological health.

Differentiating between toxic positivity and resilience/ optimism became an important part of our findings. Toxic positivity rejects or ignores stress, negativity, or trauma, leading to negative consequences. However, research suggests caution before equating toxic positivity with resilience and optimism. While traumatic events do often lead to distress and illness, developing resilience and a positive outlook are also important components in successfully coping with a traumatic event while remaining grounded in reality.

Read the full article here: 

Sokal, L., Eblie Trudel, L., & Babb, J. (2020, Fall). It’s okay to be okay too. Why calling out teachers’ “toxic positivity” may backfire. Education Canada, 60(3),  https://www.edcan.ca/articles/its-ok-to-be-ok-too/

During the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic, we surveyed over 2,200 teachers across Canada to find out how chronic and increasing stress levels were affecting their well-being, knowing that prolonged exposure to stress has a negative effect on both physical and psychological health.

​

Differentiating between toxic positivity and resilience/ optimism became an important part of our findings. Toxic positivity rejects or ignores stress, negativity, or trauma, leading to negative consequences. However, research suggests caution before equating toxic positivity with resilience and optimism. While traumatic events do often lead to distress and illness, developing resilience and a positive outlook are also important components in successfully coping with a traumatic event while remaining grounded in reality.

​

Find the full article here: 

Sokal, L., Eblie Trudel, L., & Babb, J. (2020, Fall). It’s okay to be okay too. Why calling out teachers’ “toxic positivity” may backfire. Education
In this study, we wanted to look at the relationship between cynicism, depersonalization, attitudes towards change, and evaluation of leadership in teachers during the Covid-19 pandemic. We did this by surveying 133 Canadian teachers from a central school division, and following up on our learning with focus groups.



Through correlational analysis, we found that cynicism and depersonalization are important components of teacher burnout, and that attitudes towards leadership significantly correlated with attitudes towards change.

​

Find the full article here:

Sokal, L. & Eblie Trudel, L. (2022). Correlates of teacher cynicism and depersonalization during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Education and Social Science, 9(15). https://ijessnet.com/2022/11/02/vol-9-no-5/ 

01

Correlates of Teacher Cynicism and Depersonalization During the Covid-19 Pandemic 

In this study, we wanted to look at the relationship between cynicism, depersonalization, attitudes towards change, and evaluation of leadership in teachers during the Covid-19 pandemic. We did this by surveying 133 Canadian teachers from a central school division, and following up on our learning with focus groups.

 

Through correlational analysis, we found that cynicism and depersonalization are important components of teacher burnout, and that attitudes towards leadership significantly correlated with attitudes towards change.

Read the full article here:

Sokal, L. & Eblie Trudel, L. (2022). Correlates of teacher cynicism and depersonalization during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Education and Social Science, 9(15). https://ijessnet.com/2022/11/02/vol-9-no-5/ 

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